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Flu 

Flu

DEFINITION:

Influenza, commonly called "the flu," is an illness caused by RNA viruses that infect the respiratory tract of many animals, birds, and humans. In most people, the infection results in the person getting fever, cough, headache, and malaise (tired, no energy); some people also may develop a sore throat, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The majority of individuals has symptoms for about one to two weeks and then recovers with no problems. However, compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza (flu) infection can cause a more severe illness with a mortality rate (death rate) of about 0.1% of people who are infected with the virus.

The above is the usual situation for the yearly occurring "conventional" or "seasonal" flu strains. However, there are situations in which some flu outbreaks are severe. These severe outbreaks occur when a portion of the human population is exposed to a flu strain against which the population has little or no immunity because the virus has become altered in a significant way. These outbreaks are usually termed epidemics. Unusually severe worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) have occurred several times in the last hundred years since influenza virus was identified in 1933. By an examination of preserved tissue, the worst influenza pandemic (also termed the Spanish flu or Spanish influenza) occurred in 1918 when the virus caused between 40-100 million deaths worldwide, with a mortality rate estimated to range from 2% to 20%.

CAUSES:

Influenza viruses cause the flu and are divided into three types, designated A, B, and C. Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter and are often associated with increased rates of hospitalization and death. Influenza type C differs from types A and B in some important ways. Type C infection usually causes either a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all; it does not cause epidemics and does not have the severe public-health impact of influenza types A and B. Efforts to control the impact of influenza are aimed at types A and B, and the remainder of this discussion will be devoted only to these two types.

Influenza viruses continually change over time, usually by mutation (change in the viral RNA). This constant changing often enables the virus to evade the immune system of the host (humans, birds, and other animals) so that the host is susceptible to changing influenza virus infections throughout life. This process works as follows: a host infected with influenza virus develops antibodies against that virus; as the virus changes, the "first" antibody no longer recognizes the "newer" virus and infection can occur because the host does not recognize the new flu virus as a problem until the infection is well under way. The first antibody developed may, in some instances, provide partial protection against infection with a new influenza virus. In 2009, almost all individuals had no antibodies that could recognize the novel H1N1 virus immediately.

Type A viruses are divided into subtypes or strains based on differences in two viral surface proteins called the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N). There are at least 16 known H subtypes and nine known N subtypes. These surface proteins can occur in many combinations. When spread by droplets or direct contact, the virus, if not killed by the host's immune system, replicates in the respiratory tract and damages host cells. In people who are immune compromised (for example, pregnant individuals, infants, cancer patients, asthma patients, people with pulmonary disease and many others), the virus can cause viral pneumonia or stress the individual's system to make them more susceptible to bacterial infections, especially bacterial pneumonia. Both pneumonia types, viral and bacterial, can cause severe disease and sometimes death.

SYMPTOMS:

  • fever (usually 100 F-103 F in adults and often even higher in children),
  • chills,
  • respiratory symptoms such as
    • cough (more often in adults),
    • sore throat (more often in adults),
    • runny or stuffy nose (especially in children),
  • headache,
  • muscle aches,
  • fatigue, sometimes extreme.

Although nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can sometimes accompany influenza infection, especially in children, gastrointestinal symptoms are rarely prominent. The term "stomach flu" is a misnomer that is sometimes used to describe gastrointestinal illnesses caused by other microorganisms. H1N1 infections, however, have caused more nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea than the conventional (seasonal) flu viruses.

Most people who get the flu recover completely in one to two weeks, but some people develop serious and potentially life-threatening medical complications, such as pneumonia. In an average year, influenza is associated with about 36,000 deaths nationwide and many more hospitalizations. Flu-related complications can occur at any age; however, the elderly and people with chronic health problems are much more likely to develop serious complications after the conventional influenza infections than are younger, healthier people. However, the H1N1 virus had developed a different pattern of infection. Unfortunately, the pattern of infection is similar to that of the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in which young people (pregnant individuals, infants, teens, and adults through age 49) are the most susceptible populations worldwide. Analysis of the people who were likely to develop complications from the H1N1 infection showed that other groups of people were also susceptible, including American Indians, patients with COPD, and obese individuals.

Unfortunately, people may be contagious about 24-48 hours before symptoms appear and, for those people who spontaneously recover, they may shed contagious viruses for about a week.

With our many years of experience, our centre provides effective treatment with combinations of natural herbs which is very effective in curing this illness. Please mail us your problems and we will get back to you soonest possible.

                              (Wong Medical Centre)

No. 54, Jalan Pasir Putih                      14 & 16 Jalan Lapangan Siber 1

Taman Shatin                                        Bandar Cyber

31650 Ipoh                                             31350 Ipoh

Perak                                                     Perak Malaysia

Contact No. : 012-4520077                      012-5036040   /  05-3114022

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